Numerous scaffold-related accidents are caused by incorrect access or egress. These accidents can be eliminated if adequate means for the access of the scaffold are provided.
The access to the platform of a supported scaffold must be done using ladders, stairs, ramps or direct passage from another scaffold or structure. Do not use the scaffold frame to climb to the work platform. The use of stilts for climbing up or down a scaffold is not allowed.
The ladders can be built into the frame, attached to the frame, or portable. They should be positioned or installed so that the when stepping-off the ladder you step on the side (the rungs of the ladder are at 90 degrees to the edge of the platform to be accessed).
Figure 1: Position of mounted ladder (from CSA Z797-09)
Portable ladders may be used to access work platforms. Work platforms at higher elevations must be accessed by:
Do not use equipment hoists to access the work platform.
When using a portable ladder to access a scaffold, make sure that the ladder:
Always maintain a tree-point contact when climbing the ladder.
Do not carry materials or equipment while climbing the ladder.
It is preferably that a suspended scaffold be accessed from the ground or rooftop. When the working platform cannot be raised at the roof level, the access and egress should be made from an area below the point of suspension. Means for access and egress must be installed as the scaffold is erected.
Scaffolds Mounted On Wheels
O. Reg. 213/91
Part II GENERAL CONSTRUCTION
74. (1) A ramp shall have,
(a) a slope not exceeding a gradient of 1 in 3; and
(b) if its slope exceeds a gradient of 1 in 8, cross-cleats made from nineteen millimetres by thirty-eight millimetres boards that are securely nailed to the ramp and spaced at regular intervals not exceeding 500 millimetres.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a ramp installed in the stairwell of a building not exceeding two storeys in height if the ramp,
(a) has a slope not exceeding a gradient of 1 in 1; and
(b) has cross cleats made from thirty-eight millimetres by thirty-eight millimetres boards that are securely nailed to the ramp and spaced at regular intervals not exceeding 300 millimetres.
Stairs and Landings
77. (1) No work shall be performed in a building or structure with stairs unless the stairs meet the requirements of this section.
(2) Stairs shall have,
(a) a clear width of at least 500 millimetres;
(b) treads and risers of uniform width, length and height;
(c) subject to subsection (3), stringers with a maximum slope of 50 degrees from the horizontal;
(d) landings that are less than 4.5 metres apart measured vertically;
(e) a securely fastened and supported wooden handrail on the open sides of each flight; and
(f) a guardrail on the open side of each landing.
(3) The stringers of prefabricated stairs erected inside a tower formed by scaffold frame sections shall have a maximum slope of 60 degrees from the horizontal.
(4) A wooden handrail shall measure thirty-eight millimetres by eighty-nine millimetres and shall be free of loose knots, sharp edges, splinters and shakes.
(5) Skeleton steel stairs shall have temporary wooden treads securely fastened in place that are made of suitable planking extending the full width and breadth of the stairs and landings.
81. (1) A portable ladder,
(a) shall be free from defective or loose rungs;
(b) shall be placed on a firm and level footing or support surface; and
(c) shall not be used in an elevator shaft or a similar hoisting area when the shaft or area is being used for hoisting.
(2) A non-self-supporting portable ladder shall be situated so that its base is not less than one-quarter, and not more than one-third, of the length of the ladder from a point directly below the top of the ladder and at the same level as the base of the ladder, if the ladder is not securely fastened to prevent its movement.
(3) A portable ladder or ladder section shall not be tied or fastened to another ladder or ladder section to increase its length unless the manufacturer’s instructions allow for this.
(4) A manufactured portable ladder shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
[O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13]
82. (1) This section applies if a portable ladder is used as a means of access and egress between,
(a) levels of a building or structure;
(b) the ground or grade level to a building or structure; or
(c) different work surface levels.
(2) The ladder,
(a) shall extend at the upper level at least 900 millimetres above the landing surface;
(b) shall, subject to subsection (3), have a clear space of at least 150 millimetres behind every rung;
(c) shall be located so that an adequate landing surface that is clear of obstructions is available at the top and bottom of the ladder for access and egress; and
(d) shall be secured at the top and bottom to prevent movement of the ladder.
(3) Clause (2) (b) does not apply to a ladder lying on an excavation wall that is sloped, as required by section 234.
[O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13]
84. (1) Subject to subsection (2), an access ladder fixed in position,
(a) shall be vertical;
(b) shall have rest platforms at not more than nine metre intervals;
(c) shall be offset at each rest platform;
(d) where the ladder extends over five metres above grade, floor or landing, shall have a safety cage commencing not more than 2.2 metres above grade, floor or landing and continuing at least 90 centimetres above the top landing with openings to permit access by a worker to rest platforms or to the top landing;
(e) shall have side rails that extend 90 centimetres above the landing;
(f) shall have rungs that are at least 15 centimetres from the wall and spaced at regular intervals.
(g) shall have an adequate landing surface that is clear of obstructions at the top and bottom of the ladder for access and egress;
(h) shall be free from defective or loose rungs; and
(i) shall not be used in an elevator shaft or a similar hoisting area when the shaft or area is being used for hoisting.
(2) Clauses (1) (b), (c) and (d) do not apply to any access ladder on a tower, water tank, chimney or similar structure that has a safety device that will provide protection should a worker using the ladder fall.
[O. Reg. 631/94, s. 2; 345/15, s. 14]
85. Repealed. [O. Reg. 145/00, s. 24]
86. Repealed. [O. Reg. 145/00, s. 24]
Forms, Formwork, Falsework and Re-shoring
116. (1) No stilts shall be present at or used on a project except in accordance with this section.
(2) No leg extensions, other than stilts, shall be present at or used on a project.
(3) Subject to subsection (4), stilts may be used on a project for work in residential units and residential common areas only if they are used for the following purposes:
1. Drywall finishing work.
2. Installation of insulation.
3. Installation of vapour barriers.
(4) Stilts shall not be used on a scaffold or to climb up or down stairs.
(5) Stilts used in accordance with this section shall,
(a) be commercially manufactured;
(b) be made of unpainted metal;
(c) have a non-slip surface on the bottom of each base plate;
(d) be in good working condition; and
(e) be suitable for their intended use.
(6) Stilts may be used to a maximum height of 76 centimetres as measured from the work surface that the user of the stilts would otherwise stand on to the top of the foot plate.
(7) Stilts may be used on a work surface only if the work surface satisfies the following conditions:
1. It is made of rigid material.
2. It is either level or does not have a slope of more than three per cent.
3. All openings on the work surface are adequately covered or guarded.
4. All open sides of the work surface are adequately guarded.
5. It is free of debris or anything else that may be a hazard to a worker on stilts.
6. All obstructions that cannot be removed are adequately guarded, placed or secured to prevent a worker on stilts from being injured.
(8) If stilts are used in a work area for which sections 26.1 and 26.3 require a guardrail system, the guardrail system shall be modified by adding,
(a) an additional top rail,
(i) 76 centimetres above the existing top rail, or
(ii) at a height above the existing top rail equal to the height of the stilts being used in the work area; and
(b) an intermediate rail that is located midway between the additional top rail and the existing top rail.
(9) A modified guardrail system described in subsection (8) shall be capable of resisting any load it could be subjected to by a worker on stilts.
(10) An employer shall ensure that a worker who uses stilts is trained in their use by completing an adequate training program that,
(a) enables the worker to demonstrate proficiency in the safe and proper use of stilts; and
(b) provides instruction on the relevant requirements of this Regulation; and
(c) provides instruction on,
(i) mounting and dismounting,
(ii) adjusting stilts to suit the individual worker and the work,
(iii) walking on and working with stilts while maintaining balance and stability,
(iv) inspecting stilts for damage and defects,
(v) maintaining, servicing and storing stilts,
(vi) conducting an inspection of the work area before commencing work to identify hazards for stilts use,
(vii) correcting any hazardous conditions identified under subclause (vi), and
(viii) setting up tools and materials to ensure they are adequately accessible when using stilts.
(11) No worker shall use stilts at a project unless he or she has successfully completed a program described in subsection (10) and carries proof of completing the program at all times when using the stilts.
(12) A worker using stilts at a project shall inspect the stilts for damage, wear, corrosion and other defects the first time each day that the worker uses the stilts.
(13) An employer shall ensure that a worker does not use stilts that are damaged, worn, corroded or defective and no worker shall use such stilts.
(14) Stilts shall be stored, serviced and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
[O. Reg. 443/09, s. 4]
Explosive Actuated Fastening Tool
129. (1) A scaffold mounted on castors or wheels,
(a) shall be equipped with a suitable braking device on each castor or wheel; and
(b) shall have the brakes applied when a worker is on the scaffold.
(2) A scaffold mounted on castors or wheels shall be equipped with guy wires or outriggers to prevent its overturning if the height of the scaffold platform exceeds three times the least lateral dimension of the scaffold,
(a) measured at the base of the scaffold; or
(b) if outriggers are used, measured between the outriggers.
(3) No scaffold mounted on castors or wheels that has a scaffold platform more than 2.4 metres above the base shall be moved when a worker is on it unless,
(a) the worker is wearing a full body harness as part of a fall arrest system attached to a fixed support; and
(b) the scaffold is being moved on a firm level surface.