For a safe rigging operation a rigger must know:
Riggers must be aware of physical and environmental elements that can affect hoisting safety, factors that reduce lifting capacity, and safe practices in rigging, lifting, moving, and landing loads. Riggers must also be familiar with the proper inspection and use of slings and other rigging hardware. Most crane and rigging accidents can be prevented by following safe hoisting and rigging practices.
Employers must make sure workers involved with hoisting operations are adequately trained and have clear instructions about the requirements, restrictions, and hazards. These workers include crane operators to be assisted by signallers and the signallers shall be competent workers trained according to the regulation.
Workers involved in rigging operations near overhead powerlines must receive training to the site specific procedures required to avoid coming into proximity to the electrical hazard. A competent worker designated as a signaller must be stationed in view of the powerline and the operator.
Constructors must keep all design drawings, test reports, written statements, and certification documents with the crane at all times during the hoisting operation, and must provide inspectors with copies when requested. Constructor must keep signed design drawings while the tower crane is erect.
Cables, Slings & Rigging
Do not use rotation-resistant wire rope for a cable for boom hoist reeving and pendants or where an inner wire or strand for a cable is damaged or broken.
Hoisting hooks must have a safety catch except when they are used in placing structural members if the method of placing protects workers as much as a safety catch would. Do not use a hook that is cracked, has a throat opening bigger than the manufactured opening or is twisted from the plane of the unbent hook. Hoisting hooks and hook blocks must be cast or stamped to display their load rating legibly cast in a location that visible during its use.
Guide Ropes and Tag Lines
In some cases, workers can be in danger from the rotation or uncontrolled motion of a load being hoisted. Guide ropes or tag lines prevent this rotation or uncontrolled motion. When using guide rope or tag line, do not remove them until the load has landed and there is no danger of it tipping, collapsing or rolling.
Piles and Sheet-Piling
Cables used by a hoisting device must be visually inspected by a competent worker at least once a week when it being used on site. Workers performing an inspection must record the condition of the rope or cable in a separate log for each hoisting device.
O. Reg. 213/91
Part II GENERAL CONSTRUCTION
104. (1) Every project shall be planned and organized so that vehicles, machines and equipment are not operated in reverse or are operated in reverse as little as possible.
(2) Vehicles, machines and equipment at a project shall not be operated in reverse unless there is no practical alternative to doing so.
(3) Operators of vehicles, machines and equipment shall be assisted by signallers if either of the following applies:
1. The operator's view of the intended path of travel is obstructed.
2. A person could be endangered by the vehicle, machine or equipment or by its load.
(4) Subsection (3) also applies to shovels, backhoes and similar excavating machines and to cranes and similar hoisting devices.
(5) The operator and the signaller shall,
(a) jointly establish the procedures by which the signaller assists the operator; and
(b) follow those procedures.
(6) If subsection (3) applies to the project and it is not possible to carry out the project without some operation of vehicles and equipment in reverse, signs shall be posted at the project in conspicuous places warning workers of the danger.
[O. Reg. 145/00, s. 27]
106. (1) A signaller shall be a competent worker and shall not perform other work while acting as a signaller.
(1.1) The signaller shall wear a garment that covers at least his or her upper body and has the following features:
1. The garment shall be fluorescent blaze or international orange in colour.
2. On the front and the back, there shall be two yellow stripes that are 5 centimetres wide. The yellow area shall total at least 500 square centimetres on the front and at least 570 square centimetres on the back.
3. On the front, the stripes shall be arranged vertically and centred and shall be approximately 225 millimetres apart, measured from the centre of each stripe. On the back, they shall be arranged in a diagonal "X" pattern.
4. The stripes shall be retro-reflective and fluorescent.
(1.2) If the garment is a vest, it shall have adjustable fit.
(1.3) A nylon vest to which this section applies shall also have a side and front tear-away feature.
(1.4) In addition, a signaller who may be endangered during nighttime hours shall wear retro-reflective silver stripes encircling each arm and leg, or equivalent side visibility-enhancing stripes with a minimum area of 50 square centimetres per side.
(1.5) The employer shall,
(a) ensure that the signaller has received adequate oral training in his or her duties and has received adequate oral and written instructions in a language that he or she understands; and
(b) keep the written instructions at the project.
(2) A signaller,
(a) shall be clear of the intended path of travel of the vehicle, machine or equipment, crane or similar hoisting device, shovel, backhoe or similar excavating machine or its load;
(b) shall be in full view of the operator of the vehicle, machine or equipment, crane or similar hoisting device, shovel, backhoe or similar excavating machine;
(c) shall have a clear view of the intended path of travel of the vehicle, machine or equipment, crane or similar hoisting device, shovel, backhoe or similar excavating machine or its load; and
(d) shall watch the part of the vehicle, machine or equipment or crane or similar hoisting device, shovel, backhoe or similar excavating machine or its load whose path of travel the operator cannot see.
(3) The signaller shall communicate with the operator by means of a telecommunication system or, where visual signals are clearly visible to the operator, by means of prearranged visual signals.
[O. Reg. 145/00, s. 28; 345/15, s. 16]
150. (1) Subject to subsection (2), no worker shall operate a crane or similar hoisting device unless the worker holds a certificate of qualification issued under the Ontario College of Trades and Apprenticeship Act, 2009 , that is not suspended, or the worker is an apprentice and is working pursuant to a training agreement registered under that Act, that is not suspended, in the trade of,
(a) hoisting engineer - mobile crane operator 1, if the worker is operating a crane or similar hoisting device capable of raising, lowering or moving any material that weighs more than 30,000 pounds;
(b) hoisting engineer - mobile crane operator 1 or hoisting engineer - mobile crane operator 2, if the worker is operating a crane or similar hoisting device capable of raising, lowering or moving only material that weighs more than 16,000 pounds but no more than 30,000 pounds; or
(c) hoisting engineer - tower crane operator, if the worker is operating a tower crane.
(1.1) Subsection (1) does not apply when a worker is using excavation equipment to place pipes into a trench.
(2) No worker shall operate a crane or similar hoisting device, other than one described in subsection (1), unless,
(a) the worker has written proof of training indicating that he or she is trained in the safe operation of the crane or similar hoisting device; or
(b) the worker is being instructed in the operation of the crane or similar hoisting device and is accompanied by a person who meets the requirements of clause (a).
(3) A worker shall carry his or her proof of training while operating a crane or similar hoisting device.
[O. Reg. 631/94, s. 3; 88/13, s. 1]
153. (1) No worker shall use as a workplace a platform, bucket, basket, load, hook, sling or similar device that is capable of moving and is supported by a cable attached to the boom of a crane or similar hoisting device, except in accordance with this section.
(2) A crane may be used to raise, support or lower a worker only if,
(a) conventional access equipment cannot be used;
(b) the platform that the worker is on,
(i) is designed by a professional engineer in accordance with good engineering practice,
(ii) is constructed in accordance with the design drawings,
(iii) is equipped with more than one means of suspension or support,
(iv) is equipped with anchor points for the attachment of the worker's fall arrest systems,
(v) is equipped with a guardrail in accordance with section 26.3,
(vi) is suspended from, or supported by, a direct attachment to the boom of the crane,
(vii) is designed, constructed or maintained so that the failure of one means of support or suspension will not cause the collapse of all or part of the platform, and
(viii) has its maximum rated load capacity legibly and permanently marked in a conspicuous place on it; and
(c) the crane,
(i) is equipped with fail-safe mechanisms that will prevent the boom and the suspended platform from free falling in the event of a power source or system failure or the inadvertent release of any operating controls,
(ii) is not used to hoist material while the platform is being used to support a worker,
(iii) is not loaded in excess of 25 per cent of its maximum rated load,
(iv) has a revised load rating chart prepared by a professional engineer in accordance with good engineering practice and affixed in a conspicuous place on the crane,
(v) has, on its hoist line, hooks equipped with self-closing safety catches at the point where the platform is suspended, and
(vi) is equipped with an automatic limit switch that prevents the platform and load from reaching beyond the highest permissible position specified by the crane manufacturer.
(3) Any modifications or repairs to the boom of the crane shall be made in accordance with the instructions of the crane manufacturer or a professional engineer.
(4) Every worker on the platform shall wear a full body harness connected independently to anchor points on the platform and used in conjunction with a lanyard fitted with a shock absorber.
(5) The design drawings of the platform shall,
(a) set out the size and specifications of all components of the platform, including the type and grade of materials used for it;
(b) state the maximum live load of the platform;
(c) specify the model and type of crane to be used in conjunction with the platform; and
(d) include a statement that, in the opinion of the professional engineer who designed the platform, the design meets the requirements of clauses (a), (b) and (c).
(e) Repealed. [O. Reg. 85/04, s. 16]
(6) Before the platform is used, a competent worker shall inspect it and verify in writing that it has been constructed in accordance with the design drawings.
(7) No person shall use the platform until the verification required under subsection (6) is given.
(8) Before the crane is first used to lift persons, and at least once every 12 months after the first test, a professional engineer shall ensure that the crane be subjected to non-destructive testing to ensure the structural integrity of the crane.
(9) A competent worker shall visually inspect the crane's structural elements and the rigging equipment for defects before each use of the crane.
(10) The employer shall ensure that an adequate means of communication between the worker on the platform and the crane operator is established, maintained and used.
(11) Before beginning any hoisting operation under this section, the constructor shall notify by telephone an inspector in the office of the Ministry of Labour nearest to the project.
(12) The employer shall ensure that every worker involved with the hoisting operation receives adequate instructions about the requirements, restrictions and hazards associated with the hoisting operation.
(13) The employer shall develop adequate emergency rescue procedures and communicate these in writing to all workers involved with the hoisting operation.
(14) The constructor shall keep all design drawings, test reports, written statements and certification documents required under this section with the crane at all times during the hoisting operation.
(15) On request, the constructor shall provide an inspector with copies of any document described in subsection (14).
[O. Reg. 631/94, s. 4; 527/00, s. 5; 85/04, s. 16; 242/16, s. 15]
157. (1) No tower crane shall be erected at a project except in accordance with this section.
(2) The foundations supporting a tower crane shall be designed by a professional engineer in accordance with the crane manufacturer's specifications and shall be constructed in accordance with the design.
(3) The shoring and bracing that support a tower crane or tie it in place shall be designed by a professional engineer in accordance with the crane manufacturer's specifications and shall be installed in accordance with the design.
(4) The structural engineer responsible for the structural integrity of the building or structure shall review the design drawings for the foundation, shoring and bracing for a tower crane before the crane is erected at a project to ensure the structural integrity of the building or structure.
(5) The structural engineer who reviews the design drawings shall sign the drawings upon approving them.
(6) The constructor shall keep at the project while a tower crane is erected a copy of the signed design drawings for its foundation, shoring and bracing and any written opinion about the drawings by a structural engineer.
159. (1) A professional engineer or a competent worker designated by a professional engineer shall visually inspect for defects the structural elements and components of a tower crane,
(a) after the crane is erected and before it is used; and
(b) after the inspection under clause (a), at intervals not greater than twelve months.
(2) No tower crane shall be used until any defects found during an inspection are repaired in accordance with the instructions of the crane's manufacturer or a professional engineer.
(3) A professional engineer or a competent worker designated by a professional engineer shall inspect a tower crane that has been repaired to ensure that the defects are corrected.
(4) The professional engineer conducting an inspection or under whose direction the inspection is done shall prepare a written report of the test results.
(5) The constructor shall keep the report at a project while the crane is erected.
[O. Reg. 85/04, s. 18]
168. (1) A cable used by a crane or similar hoisting device,
(a) shall be steel wire rope of the type, size, grade and construction recommended by the manufacturer of the crane or similar hoisting device;
(b) shall be compatible with the sheaves and the drum of the crane or similar hoisting device;
(c) shall be lubricated to prevent corrosion and wear;
(d) shall not be spliced; and
(e) shall have its end connections securely fastened and shall be kept with at least three full turns on the drum.
(2) No cable used by a crane or similar hoisting device,
(a) subject to subsection (3), shall contain six randomly- distributed wires that are broken in one rope lay or three or more wires that are broken in one strand in a rope lay;
(b) shall be smaller than its nominal rope diameter by more than,
(i) one millimetre for a diameter up to and including nineteen millimetres,
(ii) two millimetres for a diameter greater than nineteen millimetres up to and including twenty-nine millimetres, and
(iii) three millimetres for a diameter greater than twenty- nine millimetres;
(c) shall be worn by more than one-third of the original diameter of its outside individual wires;
(d) shall show evidence of kinking, bird-caging, corrosion or other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure; or
(e) shall show evidence of possible rope failure including rope damage caused by contact with electricity.
(3) No cable that is static or is used for pendants,
(a) shall contain three or more broken wires in one lay or in a section between end connectors; or
(b) shall have more than one broken wire at an end connector.
(4) Rotation-resistant wire rope shall not be used for a cable for boom hoist reeving and pendants.
(5) Rotation-resistant wire rope shall not be used where an inner wire or strand for a cable is damaged or broken.
169. A cable used by a crane or similar hoisting device shall be capable of supporting at least,
(a) three and one-half times the maximum load to which it is likely to be subjected if it is used on a device other than a tower crane and it winds on a drum or passes over a sheave;
(b) five times the maximum load to which it is likely to be subjected if it is used on a tower crane and it winds on a drum or passes over a sheave;
(c) three times the maximum load to which it is likely to be subjected if it is a pendant or is not subject to winding or bending; and
(d) ten times the maximum load to which it is likely to be subjected if the crane or similar hoisting device is used for supporting persons.
170. (1) All cable used by a crane or similar hoisting device shall be visually inspected by a competent worker at least once a week when the crane or similar hoisting device is being used.
(2) The worker performing an inspection shall record the condition of the rope or cable inspected in the log book for the crane or similar hoisting device.
171. (1) A cable used by a crane or similar hoisting device shall be securely attached,
(a) by binding and fastening the cable around an oval thimble in a way that is strong enough to prevent the cable thimble from separating; or
(b) by fastening the cable within either a tapered socket by means of virgin zinc or a wedge-type socket fitted with a wire rope clip at the dead end to prevent the accidental release or loosening of the wedge.
(2) The dead end cable of a wedge socket assembly on a hoisting line shall extend between 100 millimetres and 300 millimetres out of the socket.
172. (1) A container, sling or similar device for rigging or hoisting an object, including its fittings and attachments,
(a) shall be suitable for its intended use;
(b) shall be suitable for and capable of supporting the object being rigged or hoisted;
(c) shall be so arranged as to prevent the object or any part of the object from slipping or falling;
(d) shall be capable of supporting at least five times the maximum load to which it may be subjected; and
(e) shall be capable of supporting at least ten times the load to which it may be subjected if it is to be used to support a person.
(2) A sling or similar device made of web-type fabric or nylon shall be labelled to indicate its load rating capacity.
(3) No sling or similar device for rigging or hoisting made of web- type fabric or nylon shall be used if it may be cut.
173. (1) Every hoisting hook shall be equipped with a safety catch.
(2) No safety catch is required on a hoisting hook used in placing structural members if the method of placing protects workers to the same standard as a safety catch does.
(3) A hoisting hook shall have its load rating legibly cast or stamped on it in a location where the person using the hook can readily see it.
(4) A hoisting hook shall not be used if it is cracked, has a throat opening that is greater than as manufactured or is twisted from the plane of the unbent hook.
174. A hook block shall have its load rating and weight legibly cast or stamped on it in a conspicuous location.
175. (1) An overhauling weight used on the cable of a crane or similar hoisting device,
(a) shall be prevented from sliding up or down the cable; and
(b) shall be securely attached to the load hook and the cable.
(2) No overhauling weight used on the cable of a crane or similar hoisting device shall be split.
176. (1) Only an alloy steel chain or a chain manufactured for the purpose shall be used for hoisting.
(2) No alloy steel chain shall be annealed or welded.
(3) A chain used for hoisting shall,
(a) be labelled to indicate its load rating capacity;
(b) be repaired and reconditioned in accordance with the specifications of its manufacturer;
(c) after being repaired or reconditioned, be proof tested in accordance with the specifications of its manufacturer; and
(d) be visually inspected by a competent worker as frequently as recommended by its manufacturer and, in any case, at least once a week when the chain is in service.
[O. Reg. 345/15, s. 20]
177. Repealed. [O. Reg. 345/15, s. 21]
178. A friction-type clamp used in hoisting materials shall be constructed so that an accidental slackening of the hoisting cable does not release the clamp.
179. (1) If a worker may be endangered by the rotation or uncontrolled motion of a load being hoisted by a crane or similar hoisting device, one or more guide ropes or tag lines shall be used to prevent the rotation or uncontrolled motion.
(2) No guide rope or tag line shall be removed from a load referred to in subsection (1) until the load is landed and there is no danger of it tipping, collapsing or rolling.
180. (1) Piles and sheet-piling shall be adequately supported to prevent their uncontrolled movement while they are being hoisted, placed, removed or withdrawn.
(2) No worker shall be in an area where piles or sheet-piling are being hoisted, placed, removed or withdrawn unless the worker is directly engaged in the operation.
188. (1) This section applies unless the conditions set out in clauses 189(a) and (b) are satisfied.
(2) No object shall be brought closer to an energized overhead electrical conductor with a nominal phase-to-phase voltage rating set out in Column 1 of the Table to this subsection than the distance specified opposite to it in Column 2.
|Item||Column 1||Column 2|
|Nominal phase-to-phase voltage rating||Minimum distance|
|1.||750 or more volts, but no more than 150,000 volts||3 m|
|2.||more than 150,000 volts, but no more than 250,000 volts||4.5 m|
|3.||more than 250,000 volts||6 m|
(3) Subsections (4) to (9) apply if a crane, similar hoisting device, backhoe, power shovel or other vehicle or equipment is operated near an energized overhead electrical conductor and it is possible for a part of the vehicle or equipment or its load to encroach on the minimum distance permitted under subsection (2).
(4) A constructor shall,
(a) establish and implement written measures and procedures adequate to ensure that no part of a vehicle or equipment or its load encroaches on the minimum distance permitted by subsection (2); and
(b) make a copy of the written measures and procedures available to every employer on the project.
(5) The written measures and procedures shall include taking the following precautions to protect workers:
1. Adequate warning devices, visible to the operator and warning of the electrical hazard, shall be positioned in the vicinity of the hazard.
2. The operator shall be provided with written notification of the electrical hazard before beginning the work.
3. A legible sign, visible to the operator and warning of the potential electrical hazard, shall be posted at the operator's station.
(6) Before a worker begins work that includes an activity described in subsection (3), the employer shall provide a copy of the written measures and procedures to the worker and explain them to him or her.
(7) The worker shall follow the written measures and procedures.
(8) A competent worker, designated as a signaller, shall be stationed so that he or she is in full view of the operator and has a clear view of the electrical conductor and of the vehicle or equipment, and shall warn the operator each time any part of the vehicle or equipment or its load may approach the minimum distance.
(9) Section 106 also applies with respect to the signaller designated under subsection (8).
[O. Reg. 627/05, s. 7; 345/15, s. 23]