Falls from ladders are common to all trades and are one of the most serious safety problems in construction. Falls from ladders result in serious injuries and fatalities. There are four documents in this series. Please also see General, Types, Set Up and Inspection.
The following ladders have specific requirements for inspection:
Recommended inspection procedures include looking for:
If these or other items of concern are found, tag the ladder as defective and do not use. Destroy ladders that you are not able to repair.
For more information about ladders, use the documents listed under the resources tab.
O. Reg. 213/91
Part II GENERAL CONSTRUCTION
80. (1) A portable ladder at a project shall be manufactured and shall meet the design, performance, test and marking requirements of a Grade 1, Grade 1A or Grade 1AA ladder in the CSA Standard Z11-12 , Portable Ladders.
(2) Despite subsection (1), a portable single ladder that is custom-built for use at a project may be used at the project if the ladder has,
(a) rungs spaced at 300 millimetres on centres;
(b) side rails at least 300 millimetres apart; and
(c) a maximum length, measured along its side rail, of not more than nine metres.
(3) If a portable single ladder under subsection (2) is made of wood, the ladder shall also,
(a) be made of wood that is straight-grained and free of loose knots, sharp edges, splinters and shakes; and
(b) not be painted or coated with an opaque material that obscures the wood grain or interferes with inspections of the ladder.
(4) If the rungs of a ladder under subsection (3) are of the cleat type, the ladder shall also,
(a) have side rails that are not less than 400 millimetres but not more than 610 millimetres apart;
(b) have side rails that measure not less than,
(i) 38 millimetres by 89 millimetres if the ladder is 5.8 metres long or less, or
(ii) 38 millimetres by 140 millimetres if the ladder is more than 5.8 metres long;
(c) have rungs that measure not less than,
(i) 19 millimetres by 64 millimetres if the side rails are 400 millimetres apart, or
(ii) 19 millimetres by 89 millimetres if the side rails are more than 400 millimetres apart; and
(d) have rungs braced by filler blocks that are at least 19 millimetres thick and located between the rungs.
(5) If a ladder under subsection (3) is a double-width wooden ladder, the ladder shall also,
(a) have three evenly-spaced rails that measure at least 38 millimetres by 140 millimetres;
(b) have rungs that,
(i) measure at least 38 millimetres by 89 millimetres,
(ii) extend the full width of the ladder, and
(iii) are braced by filler blocks that are at least 19 millimetres thick; and
(c) be at least 1.5 metres wide but not more than 2 metres wide.
[O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13]
84. (1) Subject to subsection (2), an access ladder fixed in position,
(a) shall be vertical;
(b) shall have rest platforms at not more than nine metre intervals;
(c) shall be offset at each rest platform;
(d) where the ladder extends over five metres above grade, floor or landing, shall have a safety cage commencing not more than 2.2 metres above grade, floor or landing and continuing at least 90 centimetres above the top landing with openings to permit access by a worker to rest platforms or to the top landing;
(e) shall have side rails that extend 90 centimetres above the landing;
(f) shall have rungs that are at least 15 centimetres from the wall and spaced at regular intervals.
(g) shall have an adequate landing surface that is clear of obstructions at the top and bottom of the ladder for access and egress;
(h) shall be free from defective or loose rungs; and
(i) shall not be used in an elevator shaft or a similar hoisting area when the shaft or area is being used for hoisting.
(2) Clauses (1) (b), (c) and (d) do not apply to any access ladder on a tower, water tank, chimney or similar structure that has a safety device that will provide protection should a worker using the ladder fall.
[O. Reg. 631/94, s. 2; 345/15, s. 14]
85. Repealed. [O. Reg. 145/00, s. 24]
86. Repealed. [O. Reg. 145/00, s. 24]
Forms, Formwork, Falsework and Re-shoring
93. (1) All vehicles, machinery, tools and equipment shall be maintained in a condition that does not endanger a worker.
(2) No vehicle, machine, tool or equipment shall be used,
(a) while it is defective or hazardous;
(b) when the weather or other conditions are such that its use is likely to endanger a worker; or
(c) while it is being repaired or serviced, unless the repair or servicing requires that it be operated.
(3) All vehicles, machines, tools and equipment shall be used in accordance with any operating manuals issued by the manufacturers.
(4) For vehicles, machines, tools and equipment rated at greater than 10 horsepower, copies of any operating manuals issued by the manufacturers shall be kept readily available at the project.
[O. Reg. 145/00, s. 25]